We have previously reported that the leaf extract of Albizia anthelmintica exhibited substantial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties in vivo. We also comprehensively characterized the active phytoconstituents and found several flavonoids and galloyl glucosides derivatives. In the current work, we explored the gastroprotective effects of the leaf extract in an indomethacin-induced ulcer model and the mechanisms involved. The rats being pretreated with the tested extract (100 and 200 mg kg-1) significantly prevented gastric lesions by 87.4% and 92.3%, respectively, and they had no structural derangements in the gastric mucosa. The extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of IKκB, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and lipid peroxidation; increased the reduced level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity; and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. The protective activities of the extract were similar in most aspects to those exerted by the known anti-ulcer drug famotidine. These activities might be attributed to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and the reduction of iNOS levels. In conclusion, Albizia anthelmintica is a potential candidate for management of gastric ulcers with antioxidant properties.